Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), born in Vinci, in the province of Florence, was the illegitimate child of a notary. At the age of 17 he began apprenticeship in the workshop of Verrocchio, and 20 years before he was a master of the guild. Leonardo da Vinci was not only a painter, sculptor and architect, but also laid the groundwork for the development of, among others, anatomy and aeronautics, described the circulation of fluids in the human body, designed the weapon, he studied physics of the atmosphere and wrote a note published later in the Treatise on Painting. Thanks to its outstanding aptitude and inventiveness is considered by many to be the most multi-talented man in the history of mankind.
Leonardo da Vinci believed that the fuller the knowledge of the world and nature, it will be more complete and better art. Science and art sought in his concept for one purpose – to know and reproduce reality. He was interested in is not only the visual side of this reality, but the underlying causes, patterns and mechanisms of phenomena. His artistic activities can not be separated from the research of scientific intellectualism.
Leonardo da Vinci mastered all the then existing fields of art, but his art was beloved and chosen painting. He considered them to be the most perfect discipline, the hardest and most cognitive capabilities. His legacy, however, is painting slim – left little images, and even those that do exist, not all can be conclusively deemed to be authentic. However, his work is complemented by drawings, where there are more than a thousand, scattered around the various collections.
In addition to 15 paintings by Leonardo da Vinci to have survived 7,000 pages of his notebooks with drawings, sketches and scientific writings. His notes Leonardo da Vinci drew up mirror writing. Perhaps he did so because he wanted to keep it a secret, but it is more likely that it was caused by left-handed artist – because the writing in this way does not smear the ink.
In painting Leonardo da Vinci used the technique of sfumato, which is defined as follows: “Try to be handled gently with the characters, rather than focusing on the shape of the dry broadcasting … Notice how light and shadow not connect to the line, but by something resembling a cloud smoke “. Painting of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa or La Gioconda is not only the most famous example of the use of sfumato technique, but also the most recognizable portrait of the world. In Poland, is also a well-known image of Lady with an Ermine (Lady with an Ermine), because it is the only work of an artist who is in Polish collections (the Czartoryski Museum in Cracow).
Both in his paintings, as well as Treatise on Painting by Leonardo da Vinci developed the principles of atmospheric perspective, which he described as “the great distance between the eye and the mountains, so they appear to be blue in color almost air; field also becomes all the more blue, the farther they are from our eyes. ”
Of all the artists of the Italian Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci was the most sensitive to the beauties of nature, free landscape, the terrain, flora and fauna. Very many of his drawings are studies of animals, trees, flowers, mountain ranges – the special place they occupy in studies related to the element of water. Leonardo da Vinci reproached Italian artists in the presentation of the exterior landscape – he willingly placed his characters in a natural setting than in a regular line of buildings.
Mona Lisa is shown in a landscape of distant, misty mountains and winding streams, landscape peculiar, like the moon, whose strangeness and far distance is probably deliberately chosen accompaniment to this ambiguous, ironic smile, wandering across the face model.
The most classical and Renaissance and the most “Italian” work of Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper was. We use the past tense here because this work has been so severely damaged and was renovated tylekrotnie that his only remaining original composition and perspective diagram. With authentic touches of the brush Leonard – the lights, shadows, colors, physiognomy form is nothing left in their original state.
Hunger cognitive Leonardo da Vinci, his research and technical inventions (never realized) were not understanding at present and they did not raise a special curiosity – and a surprise rather distrust. However admired his wisdom, but it glorified above all an artist and thought that too little time devoted to his art.